The Religious Roots of Alcoholics Anonymous
and the Twelve Steps

by A. Orange

Chapter 32: Footnotes



1) Bufe, Charles, Alcoholics Anonymous: Cult or Cure?, 1998, 2nd edition.
The reference to the son of an inner circle member stating that it was an open secret that Frank Buchman was a homosexual comes from the second edition of the book Alcoholics Anonymous: Cult or Cure?, by Charles Bufe. After Bufe published the first edition of the book, that son in question contacted Bufe and gave him that information to answer one of Bufe's questions about Buchman's behavior. See page 28.
Also see: orange-rroot630.html#ftnt043_ret for Eleanor Forde's statement that "anyone who knew Buchman well also knew of his homosexuality."

2) Tom Driberg, The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament, pages 64-65.

3) B.W. Smith, Jr., Buchman — Surgeon of Souls, American Magazine, 122:26-7+, November 1936, page 150.

4) ibid., page 148.

5) ibid., page 149.

6) ibid., page 148.

7) ibid., page 149.

8) Driberg, op.cit., page 174.

9) Bufe, op.cit., page 20.

10) Bufe, op.cit., pages 25-26.

11) Charles W. Ferguson, The Confusion of Tongues, 1928 edition, page 106.

12) B. W. Smith, Jr., op.cit., page 151.

13) Bufe, op.cit., page 31. Buchman never recanted, but the Buchmanites did later deny that the whole thing ever happened — that Buchman had ever praised Hitler. But books written at the time disagree with them. See They Have Found A Faith, by Marcus Bach, pages 154-155.

14) Reinhold Niebuhr: The thing about Niebuhr that A.A. and N.A. members will immediately recognize is The Serenity Prayer, which he wrote in 1943:

"God, give us grace to accept with serenity the things that cannot be changed, courage to change the things which should be changed, and the wisdom to distinguish the one from the other."

Perhaps you noticed the fact that, yes, the early A.A. members who adopted Niebuhr's prayer also misquoted and mangled it. They turned it into this:

"God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, courage to change the things I can, and wisdom to know the difference."

Reinhold Niebuhr did not like that mangling. His daughter explains in her book about her father, also titled The Serenity Prayer, that Reinhold Niebuhr disliked reducing the phrase "courage to change the things which should be changed" into "courage to change the things I can", which implies that A.A. members should just go around changing things without asking whether they should be changed.

15) Tom Driberg, The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament, pages 105-113.

16) Eister, Drawing Room Conversion, page 63.

17) Tom Driberg, The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament, pages 65-67.

18) Tom Driberg, The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament, pages 88-94.

19) Tom Driberg, The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament, page 93.

20) Tom Driberg, The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament, page 74.

21) Walter Houston Clark, The Oxford Group; Its History and Significance, page 110.
Also see:
Peter Howard, Frank Buchman's Secret, page 120.
Bill Pittman, AA: The Way It Began, page 129.

22) Convert all non-alcoholics to the 12-Step religion:

  • "... we are sure that our way of living has its advantages for all." The Big Book, the Forward.
  • Wives of alcoholics must join Al-Anon and do Bill Wilson's Twelve Steps because they are over-bearing nagging bitches for wanting their husbands to quit drinking.
  • The entire family must become good little Buchmanites and confess their sins and shortcomings in family meetings. (The Big Book, 3rd edition, Chapter 9, pages 127-8.)
  • The whole family must do Bill's Twelve Steps because Daddy is acting crazy:
    One more suggestion: Whether the family has spiritual convictions or not, they may do well to examine the principles by which the alcoholic member is trying to live. They can hardly fail to approve these simple principles, though the head of the house still fails somewhat in practicing them. Nothing will help the man who is off on a spiritual tangent so much as the wife who adopts a sane spiritual program, making a better practical use of it.
    The Big Book, 3rd Edition, Chapter 9, The Family Afterward, page 130.
  • If a wife is unhappy because her husband has become obsessed with A.A. and spends all of his time at meetings, then the husband should teach his wife the Twelve Steps:
    Seeing her unhappiness, he recommends A.A.'s Twelve Steps and tries to teach her how to live.
    Twelve Steps and Twelve Traditions, William G. Wilson, page 118.
  • Even if A.A. breaks up her marriage, the wife of an alcoholic should still join Al-Anon and do Bill's Twelve Steps:
    But sometimes you must start life anew. We know women who have done it. If such women adopt a spiritual way of life their road will be smoother.
    The Big Book, 3rd edition, William G. Wilson, Chapter 8, To Wives, page 114.
  • And there are supposedly many dozens of different "spiritual diseases" which have nothing to do with alcoholism for which Bill Wilson's Twelve Steps are also the "treatment".

23) Bill Pittman, AA: The Way It Began, page 129.

24) Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc., 'PASS IT ON'; The story of Bill Wilson and how the A.A. message reached the world, page 383. Bill Wilson comments on Rowland Hazard's return to drinking in his letter to Carl Jung.
Also see Francis Hartigan's book "Bill W.", page 64: "Rowland, too, eventually returned to drink."

25) Bach, Marcus, They Have Found A Faith, pages 126, 149, 151, and 152.

26) Bach, Marcus, They Have Found A Faith, page 149.

27) Bach, Marcus, They Have Found A Faith, page 129.

28) Williamson, Geoffrey, Inside Buchmanism; an independent inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament, Philosophical Library, New York, c1954, page 203.

29) Williamson, Geoffrey, Inside Buchmanism; an independent inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament, Philosophical Library, New York, c1954, page 149, and
The Eight Points of The Oxford Group, An Exposition for Christians and Pagans, C. Irving Benson, page 58.

30) Williamson, Geoffrey, Inside Buchmanism; an independent inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament, Philosophical Library, New York, c1954, page 205.

31) Williamson, Geoffrey, Inside Buchmanism; an independent inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament, Philosophical Library, New York, c1954, page 152.

32) Williamson, Geoffrey, Inside Buchmanism; an independent inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament, Philosophical Library, New York, c1954, page 150.

33) Williamson, Geoffrey, Inside Buchmanism; an independent inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament, Philosophical Library, New York, c1954, page 160.

34) Williamson, Geoffrey, Inside Buchmanism; an independent inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament, Philosophical Library, New York, c1954, page 150-151.

35) Williamson, Geoffrey, Inside Buchmanism; an independent inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament, Philosophical Library, New York, c1954, pages 190-191.

36) Arthur Strong, Preview of a New World, pages 171 and 210.

37) Michael Lemanski, A History of Addiction & Recovery in the United States, pages 38-39.

38) Arthur Strong, Preview of a New World, pages 127 and 137.

39) Arthur Strong, Preview of a New World, pages 145-147.
H. W. 'Bunny' Austin reported that Mrs. Henry Ford called Mr. Stuart Woodfill, manager of the Grand Hotel on the island of Mackinac, who arranged for the Michigan State Park Commission to give a delapidated old hotel to Frank Buchman's organization (page 98, Frank Buchman As I Knew Him).

40) The Psychology of Social Movements, Hadley Cantril, page 159.

41) The New York Times, May 15, 1939, page 1, "12,000 AT GARDEN IN BUCHMAN RALLY";
Frank Buchman, Remaking the World, photograph page opposite page 51 shows a photograph of the Hollywood Bowl rally and states that 30,000 people attended;
and The New York Times, June 2, 1961, page 6, "Moral Rearmament Parley On" where Buchmanites bragged that 1000 people attended their World Assembly in Caux, Switzerland.

42) Some of the stream of obituaries that marked the real end of the Oxford Group and Moral Re-Armament:

  • "DUBOIS S. MORRIS, MISSIONARY, DEAD", New York Times, Sep 5, 1956. p. 27.
  • "FRANK BUCHMAN OF M.R.A. IS DEAD", Special to The New York Times: Aug 9, 1961. p. 1.
  • "DR. IRENE GATES, 61, OF M.R.A. MOVEMENT [Dies]", New York Times, Nov 13, 1962. p. 37.
  • "[Peter] Howard of M.R.A. Buried in Anglican Churchyard", New York Times, Mar 5, 1965. p. 33.
    "Mr. Howard's death at the age of 56 while he was on an evangelical tour of South America left the organization without a leader for the first time since Dr. Frank Buchman started his crusade at Oxford in the 1920's."
  • "RAY FOOTE PURDY, A LEADER IN M.R.A. [Dies]", New York Times, Nov 1, 1965. p. 41.

43) The New York Times, June 5, 1936, page 19:
      'Eleanor Forde of Montreal, who was the first woman in the Oxford Group, said: "This is a Christian revolution which is sweeping the world."'
      And in writing about Buchmanites "living on faith", A. J. Russell wrote:
"One of the ladies in the Group, Eleanor Forde, had got down to her last penny, but she prayed, and found a cheque in her mail the next morning."
See For Sinners Only, page 26.
      And Margaret Harrison reported in Saints Run Mad (1934), that
"Some of the most powerful elements in the [Oxford] Group are Americans, beginning with Dr. Buchman himself and continuing with Rev. Cleveland Hicks, Mr. K. Twitchell, and Miss Eleanor Forde — all right-hand helpers of Dr. Buchman and in great evidence at Group House Parties."
      Garth Lean mentions Eleanor Forde in his book On the Tail of a Comet several times. Page 132:
"Within a month of resigning, the three leaders of the Philadelphian Society [Ray Foote Purdy and others], together with Eleanor Forde, a Canadian and the first woman to travel internationally with the Groups, were in Oxford."
Arthur Strong printed a picture of Eileen Forde, along with a quote from Frank Buchman praising her, on page 149 of Preview Of A New World.

44) The New York Times, June 10, 1935, page 19: "10,000 IN 'HAMLET' CASTLE; Members of Oxford Movement Hold Final Meeting in Denmark."

45) "Broker": Bill Wilson called himself "a New York stockbroker" in the Foreword to the Second Edition of the Big Book (on pages 'xv' through 'xvii' of the 3rd and 4th editions).
      That was another of Bill Wilson's gross exaggerations — a lie, really. Bill Wilson was never a stock broker or anything like a stock broker. He was neither trained nor licensed as a stock broker. He never traded stocks for other people. He never worked on the New York Stock Exchange or any other exchange either. Bill never worked for a brokerage firm except for one owned by a friend in Montreal, where Bill worked for a short while as an investigator or researcher, studying companies to determine their suitability for investment or speculation (BB, p.4). Bill didn't last long on that job; he was fired for habitual drunkenness.
      What Bill Wilson really was is a stock touter, a man who investigated companies and then recommended certain stocks to investors and speculators. When (and if) Bill's recommendations paid off, the grateful speculators would give some of their profits to Bill.
      Touting stocks resembles touting horses at the race track. See the start of the Abbott and Costello movie The Lemon-Drop Kid for an example of touting horses...
      Bill Wilson fell in with a gang of stock market "operators" who ran what Bill mistakenly called "Ponzi schemes". They were actually stock market "pump-n-dump" schemes, where the gang bought up a large block of stock in some inexpensive company, and then hyped it and promoted it and boosted its price by trading it back and forth between themselves at ever higher prices so that it appeared, on the ticker tape, like the stock was "going to the moon". Then, when the public was sufficiently excited about the stock, the operators sold all of the stock, dumping it on the public at a grossly inflated price. The operators laughed all of the way to the bank, while the public was left holding stock that rapidly declined in value.
      When they did that with General Electric stock, Bill Wilson rationalized that it was okay because the stock price eventually went back up anyway. (But Bill did not say that the people who got cheated in the scheme got their money back.)
      One historian called Bill Wilson "a Wall Street hustler", which sounds like a far more accurate description of Bill's relationship to the stock market than "stock broker".

Narcissistic Legends [in Their Own Minds] can tell wonderful stories about the great things they've done in the past. Often, the stories are huge exaggerations. Always check.
Emotional Vampires: Dealing with People Who Drain You Dry, Albert J. Bernstein, Ph.D., page 149.

      Note that Bill's successful period on Wall Street was during the giddy bubble of the 1920s when everything was going up with "irrational exhuberance". The investing pundits say that anybody can pick winners in a rapidly-rising bull market when everything is going up. It's picking winners during a grim, declining bear market that separates the men from the boys. After the stock market crash of 1929, Bill's game was over.

46) The New York Times, May 3, 1946, page 6: "REFUSES TO BAR BUCHMAN; British Minister Upholds Return of Oxford Group Head".

47) The New York Times, March 10, 1939, page 9: "JUDGE BARS LEGACY TO OXFORD GROUP; Jurist Holds Evidence Fails to Show Its Existence in Law".

48) Allan W. Eister, Drawing Room Conversion; A Sociological Account of the Oxford Group Movement, pages 48,49.

49) Walter Houston Clark was a very interesting person in his own right. He was a professor of the psychology of religion at Andover Newton Theological School in Massachutsetts and a dean at Hartford Seminary. He also taught at Andover Newton in Newton Centre near Boston from 1962 until his retirement in 1969. Before that, he was dean of the School of Religious Education at the seminary. Before that, he also taught at Bowdoin College and Middlebury College.
      Early on, Clark became interested in Frank Buchman and his Oxford Group when he attended a revival meeting led by Buchman. Clark developed a lifelong interest in understanding the significance of religious experience as distinct from belief. That interest led to his writing the book The Oxford Group: Its History and Significance.
      Three of his other books are The Psychology of Religion (1958), Chemical Ecstacy; Psychedelic Drugs and Religion (1969), and Religious Experience: Its Nature and Function in the Human Psyche. The First John G. Finch Symposium on Psychology and Religion (1973).
      The New York Times reported in Clark's obituary:

He explored the importance that mystical experience can have in religion, which led to an association with Dr. Timothy Leary and others who advocated the use of hallucinogens to expand their consciousness. In the early 1960's, Dr. Clark took part in religious ceremonies in which peyote, mescaline and similar hallucinogens were taken.
      He spoke out for people arrested for using LSD and other hallucinogenic substances for what they said were solely religious purposes.
The New York Times, December 21, 1994, page B16.

50) The book Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion was a fraud — See: A Rumor About The Jews; Reflections on Antisemitism and the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, by Stephen Eric Bronner, especially pages 83 to 88.
Also see: A Doomsday Reader; Prophets, Predictors, and Hucksters of Salvation, edited by Ted Daniels. Includes a chapter on the "Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion", pages 99-107.

In the U.S.A., the original hate-radio rabble-rouser and demagogue Father Charles Coughlin — who invented Rush-Limbaugh-style hate radio back when radio was a new medium — republished The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion in the USA in July of 1938, as part of his very long tirade against the Jews. See Father Coughlin and the New Deal, pp. 193-196, and Radio Priest; Charles Coughlin, The Father of Hate Radio, by Donald Warren, pages 145 to 153.
And Father Coughlin was probably also receiving funds from Nazi Germany as well as Henry Ford. See Radio Priest, pages 232 to 244.
And Coughlin was actively disseminating Nazi propaganda: "Some of Coughlin's writings followed speeches of Joseph Goebbels word for word." See: Radio Priest, pages 244 and 251.

51) Lemansky, Michael, The History of Addiction and Recovery in the United States, page 42.

52) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet, page 35.

53) Harrison, Marjorie, Saints Run Mad, page 21.

54) Allen, Rev. G. F., Crosman, R. H. S., et al., Oxford and the Groups, 1934, p. 114.

55) Marjorie Harrison observed, 'The Group states that it "never asks for funds by either public or private appeal"', but they charged admission to the 'house parties'.
The New York Times reported, "Dr. Buchman's organization tonight issued an official rejoinder stating that it had never made a private or public appeal for funds." (The New York Times, June 14, 1939, page 32.)
Geoffrey Williamson reported the same hypocrisy in Inside Buchmanism: an independent inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament — Williamson went to MRA conventions at Caux, Switzerland, and observed the leaders dunning the crowd for contributions.
Likewise, the faithful Buchmanite and Oxford Group archivist A. J. Russell wrote about seeing Frank Buchman writing letters to rich patrons, dunning them for contributions, and warning them about the bad things that might happen to them if they didn't send money: "Frank said their refusal to extend help where greatly needed might involve them in a crop of cares they did not foresee." (For Sinners Only, page 200.)

56) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet: The Life of Frank Buchman, page 240.

57) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet: The Life of Frank Buchman, page 39. Lean states that Frank Buchman had contact with Prof. Henry Wright of Yale in 1915, during a religious campaign at Penn State to which Wright was invited as a guest teacher.

58) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet: The Life of Frank Buchman, page 87.

59) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet: The Life of Frank Buchman, footnote 12 on page 541.

60) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet: The Life of Frank Buchman, Page 7.

61) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet: The Life of Frank Buchman, Page 237 — Frank Buchman was the personal guest of Heinrich Himmler at the 1936 Berlin Olympics.

62) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet: The Life of Frank Buchman, Page 233. Frank Buchman and Moni von Cramon were the guests of Heinrich Himmler at the Nuremberg Nazi Party rally, Sept. 1934.

63) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet: The Life of Frank Buchman, Page 236. Frank Buchman and Moni von Cramon were again the guests of Heinrich Himmler at the Nuremberg Nazi Party rally, Aug. 1935.

64) Henry P. van Dusen, Apostle to the Twentieth Century; Frank N. D. Buchman: Founder of the Oxford Group Movement, Atlantic Monthly magazine, Vol. 154, No. 1, July 1934, page 14.

65) See: Jack Anderson and Ronald W. May, McCarthy, The Man, The Senator, The "ISM" (1952), pages 174-175.
On February 9, 1950, at Wheeling, West Virginia, Sen. Joe McCarthy waved a piece of paper in the air and claimed that it was a list of 205 Communists who worked in the State Department.
The next day, in Denver, Colorado, the list was "205 bad security risks".
The day after that, in Salt Lake City, the list had become "57 card-carrying Communists".
Several days later, the number was 81.
McCarthy never produced any of those lists, not even when pointedly asked to do so by the Senate subcommittees that were investigating McCarthy's charges. Eventually, after a period of national terror that hurt a lot of people, Joe McCarthy was censured by the U.S. Senate for bad conduct.

66) Peter Howard, Innocent Men, pages 11 to 15. Howard tries to explain away his involvement with Mosley as being for only a very short period, starting in 1931. Howard also declares that he was always strongly opposed to fascism. History says otherwise.

67) Peter Howard, Innocent Men, page 36.

68) See: Peter Howard, Innocent Men, pages 27, 29 to 31, 33, 34, 43 to 46, 49, 97 for references to Garth Lean.
Also see: Geoffrey Williamson, Inside Buchmanism: an independent inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament. See the index; there are too many references to list here.

69) Geoffrey Williamson, Inside Buchmanism: an independent inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament, page 5.

70) In the same book, Innocent Men, Peter Howard told us that he was practicing Buchmanism — attending Oxford Group meetings (page 34), "listening to God" in "Guidance" sessions (pages 31, 32 and 54), "making amends" (pages 32-33), and even spending a few weeks at their compound out in the country at Hay's Mews, for the full-immersion indoctrination routine (pages 64 to 71). And yet Peter Howard still dodged the question of Oxford Group membership and pretended to be a neutral observer while writing his book of praise of the Oxford Groups and Frank Buchman.
      On page 41 Peter Howard even went so far as to say:

As you can see, when I sent in my "Reply to Hickey" I had made up my mind on two points:
      1. That the Group were honest in their belief.
      2. That if their beliefs were true, nothing else in the world mattered so much.

"Nothing else in the world mattered so much"?
Yes, Howard was already a fully-sold true believer.

71) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet, page 247.

72) Geoffrey Williamson, Inside Buchmanism: an independent inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament, pages 45-51.

73) Williamson, Geoffrey, Inside Buchmanism; an independent inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament, Philosophical Library, New York, c1954, page 205.

74) The fifteen members of the ruling Council of Management of the British Oxford Group were:

  1. Frank N. D. Buchman, Doctor of Divinity;
  2. Roland W. Wilson, MA, Chairman and Secretary;
  3. John McC. Roots, BA;
  4. Cecil H. de V. Harvest, BScAgric.;
  5. H. Kenaston Twitchell, MA;
  6. Basil Entwistle, BA;
  7. R. M. S. Barrett, MA;
  8. A. S. Loudon Hamilton, BA;
  9. John T. Caulfeild, MA;
  10. Garth D. Lean, BA;
  11. R. O. Hicks, MA;
  12. A. Lawson Wood, MA;
  13. Raymond Nelson, MA;
  14. The Rev. Julian Thornton-Duesbery, MA, Principal, Wycliffe Hall, Oxford;
  15. Christopher Prescott
See: Inside Buchmanism; an independent inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament, Geoffrey Williamson, Philosophical Library, New York, c1954, page 161.

75) Donald Warren, Radio Priest; Charles Coughlin, The Father of Hate Radio, page 148.
His source: Detroit Free Press, August 1, 1938.

76) Donald Warren, Radio Priest; Charles Coughlin, The Father of Hate Radio, page 148.
His source: Remark made to John Dykema, quoted in Ford: The Men and the Machine, by Robert Lacey, page 387.

77) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet, page 65.

78) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet, page 66.

79) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet, page 66.

80) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet, pages 66-67.

81) Tom Driberg, The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament; A Study of Frank Buchman and His Movement, 1965, page 181.

82) Tom Driberg, The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament; A Study of Frank Buchman and His Movement, 1965, page 269.

83) Tom Driberg, The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament; A Study of Frank Buchman and His Movement, 1965, page 20.

84) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet, page 325.

85) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet, page 138.

86) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet, page 50.

87) L. P. Jacks, writing in Oxford and the Groups, by Allen, Rev. G. F., Crosman, R. H. S., et al., 1934, pages 129-130.

88) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet, page 134.

89) Tom Driberg, The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament; A Study of Frank Buchman and His Movement, 1965, page 303.

90) Tom Driberg, The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament; A Study of Frank Buchman and His Movement, 1965, pages 90-92.

91) Geoffrey Williamson, Inside Buchmanism; an independent inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament, Philosophical Library, New York, c1954, page 162.

92) Tom Driberg, The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament; A Study of Frank Buchman and His Movement, 1965, page 41.

93) Tom Driberg, The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament; A Study of Frank Buchman and His Movement, 1965, page 232.

94) Tom Driberg, The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament; A Study of Frank Buchman and His Movement, 1965, page 74.

95) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet: The Life of Frank Buchman, page 305, and
Garth Lean, Frank Buchman: a life, page 305.

96) Tom Driberg, The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament; A Study of Frank Buchman and His Movement, 1965, page 256, quoting from the American, 30 October 1926.

97) H. W. 'Bunny' Austin, Frank Buchman As I Knew Him, pages 29-30.

98) Gösta Ekman, Experiment with God, page 26.

99) H. W. 'Bunny' Austin, Frank Buchman As I Knew Him, page 81.

100) H. W. 'Bunny' Austin, Frank Buchman As I Knew Him, page 58.

101) Geoffrey Williamson, Inside Buchmanism; an independent inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament, Philosophical Library, New York, c1954, page 180.

102) Fresh Hope for the World: Moral Re-Armament in Action     Edited and Introduced by Gabriel Marcel;, page 158.

103) T. Willard Hunter, World Changing Through Life Changing, page 128.

104) T. Willard Hunter, World Changing Through Life Changing, page 17.

105) T. Willard Hunter, World Changing Through Life Changing, page 34; quotes the Hindustan Times Weekly, 28 December 1952.

106) T. Willard Hunter, World Changing Through Life Changing, page 11.

107) National Public Radio, 14 February 2004.

108) Tom Driberg, The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament; A Study of Frank Buchman and His Movement, 1965, page ?.

109) Tom Driberg, The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament; A Study of Frank Buchman and His Movement, 1965, page 269.

110) Peter Padfield, Himmler, Reichsführer, pages 231—232.

111) Peter Padfield, Himmler, Reichsführer, pages 230—232.

112) David Pryce-Jones, Unity Mitford: A Quest, London 1976, page 167.
Unity wrote a letter where, "In that same letter she made fun of some Buchmanites who had invaded Old Mill Cottage, and even moved on to badger Diana at Wootton. What they had wanted was an introduction to Hitler, and Unity was not about to oblige them."
Also see: Peter Padfield, Himmler, Reichsführer, pages 233 and 620.

113) David Pryce-Jones, Unity Mitford: A Quest, London 1976, the fifth page of photographs after page 116.

114) RE: Make-up: David Pryce-Jones, Unity Mitford: A Quest, London 1976, page 90, and Diana Mosley, A Life Of Contrasts (1977), pages 109 and 133.

115) Arthur Strong, Preview of a New World, page 86.

116) Basil Entwistle and John McCook Roots, Moral Re-Armament — What Is It?, page 63.

117) Williamson, Geoffrey, Inside Buchmanism; an independent inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament, Philosophical Library, New York, c1954, page 88.

118) Rev. Martine Niemoeller murdered: William L. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich; A History of Nazi Germany, page 352.
Pastor Dietrich Bonhoeffer murdered: ibid., pages 374 and 1073.

119) James Almasy casting Hitler's horoscope, see David Pryce-Jones, Unity Mitford, A Quest, page 84 of London printing.
Also see: Mel Gordon, Eric Jan Hanussen, Hitler's Jewish Clairvoyant, pages 207-8, 228-229, 232-233, and 245.

120) Ian Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936 Hubris, pages 186-187.

121) Dr. Morris Martin, Born To Live In The Future: Up With People at 25, pub. 1990, pages 17 and 88-89.

122) Dr. Morris Martin, Born To Live In The Future: Up With People at 25, pub. 1990, pages 88-89.

123) Williamson, Geoffrey, Inside Buchmanism; an independent inquiry into the Oxford Group Movement and Moral Re-Armament, Philosophical Library, New York, c1954, pages 35-51.

124) Arthur James ("A.J.") Russell, For Sinners Only, page 120. The article of praise spans pages 116 to 120.

125) Elisabeth Sifton, Serenity Prayer, pages 136, 276 to 286.

126) Ronald Hayman, Hitler & Geli, page 85.

127) Howard J. Rose was grossly misquoting the Bible and distorting its meaning, taking a quote out of context, when he cited John 16:13-14 as a justification of Frank Buchman's doctrine of "Guidance".
      If you read the two chapters before that verse, you will see that Jesus was giving a lecture to his disciples, which included predicting part of the immediate future. Then Jesus said in John 16:12 (which Howard J. Rose did not mention) that He was not going to tell his disciples the entire story just yet, or reveal the whole future to them right then, because they would not understand it. However, Jesus said in the next few lines, the Holy Spirit would come to the disciples later and tell them the rest of the story and clarify everything.
      It does not say a word about the Holy Spirit coming to anybody else and revealing the future to them. It was a gross distortion of what the book of John actually says for Howard J. Rose to cite John 16:13-14 and claim that it means that the Holy Spirit will come to Oxford Groupers during their "Quiet Time" and reveal things to them, and deliver work orders to them. In those verses, Jesus said to his disciples:

12. I have much more to say to you, but right now it would be more than you could understand. 13. The Spirit shows what is true and will come and guide you into the full truth. The Spirit doesn't speak on his own. He will tell you only what he has heard from me, and he will let you know what is going to happen. 14. The Spirit will bring glory to me by taking my message and telling it to you.

128) Howard J. Rose is doing it again. The citation of Jeremiah 10:2 in support of the occult practice of Automatic Writing is so senseless and so irrelevant that I wonder if it was a typographical error. What that verse actually says is:

10:2 Don't follow the custom of those nations who become frightened when they see something strange happen in the sky.

The closest thing that I find that seems relevant is Jeremiah 36:1...

During the fourth year that Jehoiakim son of Josiah was king of Judah, the LORD said to me, "Jeremiah, since the time Josiah was king, I have been speaking to you about Israel, Judah, and the other nations. Now get a scroll and write down everything I have told you, then read it to the people of Judah. Maybe they will stop sinning when they hear what terrible things I plan for them..."

It would be an extreme stretch to interpret that as instructions for Oxford Group members to write down their "Guidance from God" in notebooks.

129) Arthur James ("A.J.") Russell, For Sinners Only, page 120. The article of praise spans pages 116 to 120.

130) TIME magazine, April 4, 1938, page 66. See article here.

131) I am assuming that the intended definition of "squeeze" is that of coercive extortion and demanding bribes, as in "putting the squeeze on somebody" by demanding bribes and threatening dire consequences for not paying bribes or extortion fees. Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language gives this definition: "informal. an act of threatening, intimidating, harrassing, or oppressing a person or persons to obtain a favor, money, or an advantageous attitude or action."

132) Beverly Nichols, All I Could Never Be, pages 272-288.

133) Mathew J. Raphael, Bill W. and Mr. Wilson; The Legend and Life of A.A.'s Cofounder, pages 11 and 199. Also see this footnote about the Mayflower Hotel scene.

134) Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc., 'PASS IT ON'; The story of Bill Wilson and how the A.A. message reached the world, page 135-137.

135) Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc., 'PASS IT ON'; The story of Bill Wilson and how the A.A. message reached the world, page 138.

136) Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc., 'PASS IT ON'; The story of Bill Wilson and how the A.A. message reached the world, page 136.

137) Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc., 'PASS IT ON'; The story of Bill Wilson and how the A.A. message reached the world, page 136.

138) Four Studies in Loyalty, pages 183 & 184.

139) David Pryce-Jones, Unity Mitford: A Quest, London 1976, page 210.

140) V. C. Kitchen, I Was A Pagan, (New York: Harper, 1934), page 43, and
Matthew J. Raphael, Bill W. and Mr. Wilson, pages 79 and 189.

141) Matthew J. Raphael, Bill W. and Mr. Wilson, pages 10 to 12, and 199.

142) William L. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich; A History of Nazi Germany, page 662.

143) V. C. "Vic" Kitchen, I Was A Pagan, page 90.

144) T. Willard Hunter, World Changing Through Life Changing: The Story of Frank Buchman and Moral Re-Armament; A Thesis for the Degree of Master of Sacred Theology at Andover Newton Theological School, 1977, pages 70-71.

145) Times, The (United Kingdom), May 30, 2002, "Patrick Wolrige-Gordon" obituary on page 33.
(Note: Wolrige-Gordon was apparently not a typographical error; Patrick used two spellings of his name: Wolrige-Gordon, and Wolridge-Gordon. He was elected to Parliament under the name "Patrick Wolrige-Gordon", while Patrick's father spelled the family name Wolridge-Gordon. Also see The New York Times, Nov. 22, 1958, page 43.)
Patrick Wolrige-Gordon was a British politician who got involved with Frank Buchman's Moral Re-Armament, much to the detriment of his political career. He also married Peter Howard's daughter, Anne Howard, in 1962. MRA and Frank Buchman were held in bitter contempt by most of the British people. The Times reported,

"PATRICK WOLRIGE-GORDON was probably the only British MP to have lost his seat on account of his links with the Moral Re-Armament (MRA) movement."   ...
      "The dashing young Patrick in fact became engaged to be married to the beautiful Anne Howard, daughter of Peter Howard, one of Buchman's right-hand men. But the gradual involvement of the MP in MRA attracted comment throughout the country and caused some dismay in the Wolridge-Gordon family, with Patrick's father deploring his son's involvement with Buchman's cause."

Also see The New York Times obituary of Peter Howard, Feb 26, 1965, page 29, which lists Peter Howard's three children, including the daughter Anne who was married to "Patrick Wolridge-Gordon".

146) Bill and Lois Wilson, quoted in
'PASS IT ON': The story of Bill Wilson and how the A.A. message reached the world, Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. staff, 1984, pages 278-279.

147) Garth Lean, On the Tail of a Comet: The Life of Frank Buchman, page 39, and
Garth Lean, Frank Buchman: a life, page 39.



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