The Cult Test|
Questions 11 to 20
by A. Orange
(To go back and forth between the questions and the answers for
Alcoholics Anonymous, click on the numbers of the questions and
Insistence that the group is THE ONLY WAY.
The group is the only way to Heaven, or world peace, or
enlightenment, or clean and sober living, or do-it-yourself
psychotherapy, or whatever the goal is supposed to be.
There are corollaries:
- Only the faithful will be saved.
- Only members of our church will be raised when the Rapture comes.
- Only our sect will survive Armaggedon.
- Only our church has the correct interpretation of the Scriptures.
- Only we have the knowledge.
- Only our version of God will save you.
- Only our church has The Answer.
- Only our Holy Book is true.
- Only our group understands.
- Only our leader has the New Wine for the New Bottles.
- Only our leader has the New Technology of the Mind.
"In the last days of the world, the people
will be divided into the Servants of the Lord, and the Servants
of the Anti-Christ. Members of our church are the Servants of the Lord,
and we will be taken up into Heaven during the Rapture. Non-members
will be listed in the roll call of the Anti-Christ." [Jehovah's Witnesses]
"Only our church has received this special new revelation
from the Lord."
"Our leader is the only one with the magic formula for World Peace."
"Only our group is going to Heaven." [Heaven's Gate cult]
"Our God gives us a place in Heaven. What does your god offer you?" [Pentacostals]
"Our leader is the anointed Messenger from God. And yours isn't. So there."
"Only we have The Game and the great new social organization
that reliably produces clean and sober man-days." [Synanon]
- "Only our leader has discovered 'the secrets of the Ancients'."
- "Only our church has the correct understanding of the Bible."
- "Only our church follows the commandments of the Lord correctly."
"Only our leader fully understands this new technology, this great new
science of the mind." [Scientology]
Scientology regards Scientologists as the only
sane people on the planet. They
are "Operating Thetans", which is something like
"functional intelligences", or more like
"immortal god-like functional intelligences."
All of the rest of the
people on Earth are considered to be so brain-damaged,
non-functional, and insane that they are hardly worth dealing with.
But Scientology is working tirelessly to rescue as many people as
possible, by bringing them into the cult and "auditing"
them into new Operating Thetans.
Likewise, the founder-leader of the Hari Krishna cult declared:
A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
This age of Kali is called a fallen age. At the present moment, people are
short-living and very slow at understanding self-realization, or spiritual life.
They are mostly unfortunate, and as such, if somebody is a little interested
in self-realization, he is misguided by so many frauds.
The only actual way to realization of the perfect stage of yoga is to follow
the principles of the Bhagavad-Gita as they were practiced by Lord
Caitana Mahaprabhu. This is the simplest perfection of yoga practice.
... No other process can be successful in this age.
The Science of Self-Realization,
"His Divine Grace" A. C. Swami Prabhupada,
And there, Prabhupada also shows several other cult characteristics
Members of the Heaven's Gate cult believed that they had
the ONLY way to get to Heaven: commit suicide and hitch a
ride on a flying saucer that was hiding behind the Hale-Bopp comet.
They made video tapes ("exit
statements") just days before their mass suicide,
where they talked about how they felt just unbelievably fortunate
to have been born on the right planet, at the right time and place,
to have been able to meet and learn from the cult leaders
"Ti" and "Do" (Bonnie Lu Trousdale Nettles and
Marshall Herff Applewhite),
and get prepared for the Big Journey to Heaven (suicide).
And all of the other people on Earth,
who wouldn't be committing suicide and making the trip to the
Hale-Bopp comet and the flying saucer
hiding behind it? Well, sadly, they just missed the boat, and
they won't be going to Heaven... They weren't wise enough, or lucky enough,
to follow the right teacher.
Marshall Herff Applewhite
Heaven's Gate leader "Do"
And those people who committed suicide even had special
patches sewn onto their sleeves that read, "Away Team".
Yep, we're really special. We're on the Away Team.
Out of the entire population of the planet Earth, only 39 people
made it onto the Away Team, and we are those 39. We're that special.
The group and its members are special.
Brother, do they ever believe they are special:
- "We are different from ordinary people."
- "Only another cult member understands."
- "We are special because we belong to the right religion."
- "We are special because we have the new technology."
- "We have the new dispensation."
- "Our leader is the new messiah, and only he has the new wisdom,
which he is giving to us, so we are the only people who are lucky enough to
get the new wisdom."
"Our organization is a wonderful new movement that is sweeping
the world. We will usher in a new age of peace and enlightenment."
"Our organization is the latest manifestation of God's generosity
towards mankind." [Moonies]
- "We are God's Chosen Children."
- "We are the wave of the future."
- "We have been trained, processed, audited, purified, tested or
prepared in ways that no one else has."
- "No non-Scientologist has ever seen a thetan, much less checked it
for electricity, so how could anyone possibly disprove this [L. Ron Hubbard's]
- "Our group is so special that only another group member can even understand how wonderful it is."
In spite of the fact that the individual cult members are often
told by their higher-ranking mentors and superiors that they are very stupid and foolish and
lazy and incompetent, the cult members are also told that they were very smart and very
lucky, on the whole, to have joined the cult:
"The vast majority of the human race is stupid and lost.
Only these few select ones had the good fortune and wisdom to come here."
Frequently, the cult members even regard themselves as The Chosen
— the elite, chosen people who will do something grand like save
the world, usher in the New Age, or go to Heaven.
Cult members believe that what they are doing is of a higher purpose
than anything anyone else is doing. Other people are just living —
breathing, working, paying the rent, surviving — but the cult members are
transforming, building, achieving, doing great things, even saving the world.
Evil cult leaders find it easy to manipulate their followers by telling them
that they are special, chosen by God, and that what they are doing is of special
importance, that they are doing the Will of God as they work for the cult for free.
And the cult leader will tell his followers that they are much smarter and more
honest and spiritual and moral than the outsiders who won't join the cult.
What the cult leader is doing is, of course, manipulating people by appealing to
their egotism and vanity.
The attitude of specialness naturally reinforces the cult doctrine of
"you can't ever leave the cult", because
if you do, then you won't be special any more, and you won't be doing the Will of
God any more.
Heinrich Himmler, the Nazi leader who was the head of the Gestapo and SS, told his SS troops:
"Never forget we are a knightly order, from which we cannot withdraw, to which we
are recruited by blood."
An unrepentant widow of a senior SS officer, Florentine Rost von Tonnigen, declared,
"Himmler was a man of vision and out of this vision came the Wewelsburg [the castle that
was the headquarters of the 'knightly order' of the SS].
The SS is the true absolute elite of all that has been. The world today considers
us criminals, but there is no purer, more intense, and intellectually higher body
than the SS. Thank God there are still a few German people who know something
of the Wewelsburg."
The BBC TV program Hitler's Search for the Holy Grail
Deeyah Khan, a Muslim woman, interviewed both jihadists and white-supremicist neo-Nazi
groups, and made movies about the interviews. She was asked about what motivates
You've sat down with both neo-Nazis and jihadists — you've befriended them, gotten to know them, broken bread with them. What's motivating them? Where does all this hate come from?
Much of it doesn't come from hate. It comes from a lot of other basic human needs that are not being met. To be sure, there are political and social and economic factors involved on both sides, but if you dig deep, you find that it's about much more than that.
I tried to understand the core psychological draw of these movements. I found that a sense of belonging or purpose was a major factor. These people join these groups and suddenly they have a sense of meaning in life, a belief that they matter, that their voice matters. It's as though they were once invisible and now they're seen.
Most of these men get so much attention once they do something horrible, or once they say something horrible. Before that, they're invisible. And I think there is something really powerful in that, and perhaps that says more about us as a society than it does about them. But it ought to give us pause when we shower extremist groups with constant media attention.
"This filmmaker spent months interviewing neo-Nazis and jihadists. Here's what she learned.
Deeyah Khan, a Muslim woman, met her enemies — and came away more hopeful than ever."
By Sean Illing@firstname.lastname@example.org Jan 14, 2019, 8:10am EST
"...a sense of belonging or purpose was a major factor."
"...suddenly they have a sense of meaning in life, a belief that they matter..."
"...they were once invisible and now they're seen."
Yes, once you join the "movement", you are special.
Marjorie Harrison, in reporting on the
Oxford Group, said that they considered themselves
to have "a special something":
Time after time you hear new converts saying that they were first
attracted to the Group because "these people have something
that I lacked". This little something some others haven't got
is usually described as happiness or joy. The truth is that that
"little something" is a happy capacity for a facile
credulity. The majority of those who are attracted by the teaching
have this capacity in some measure, whether they are aware of it
or not. Otherwise there would be a very small Group and a much
Saints Run Mad; A Criticism of the "Oxford" Group Movement,
Marjorie Harrison (1934), page 86.
The specialness of
the cult is frequently expressed by contrasting the cult with
"everyone else out there." Those other people weren't
smart enough or good enough to join the cult. A mindset of
us versus them is encouraged. There is almost always a
clear distinction, usually aggrieved,
between "us" and "them".
"They hurt us first." Hitler exterminated the Jews in Germany while accusing them
of having hurt Germany in World War One.
In Amway, a commercial cult, members are often contrasted with non-members by
emphasizing how much the wealthy members who are at the top of the pyramid
enjoy lives of leisure.
The "Diamonds" (rich high-ranking members) enjoy luxurious vacations
in Switzerland where they go on "buying trips" — not shopping trips, buying trips
— where they buy expensive diamond jewelry, while ordinary Americans
— impoverished non-members — are forced to go camping in the
USA for their vacations, and "squat in the woods".
Michael Rogge describes the specialness of a cult this way:
Uniqueness of the movement
Movements will usually extol their superiority over others.
After all, there should be a strong reason to select that particular
group. Some present themselves as being the sole way towards salvation,
or being God's chosen people. Others promise a benefit that is
reserved solely for members of that sect.
To divert attention, some pride themselves in not having a teaching,
or for their openness and democratic rules.
In short, new movements will advance a variety of reasons for their
Herewith a few:
- Never before has mankind been offered this discipline /
interpretation / insight of our leader.
- Do not pour new wine in old bottles.
- God's, or a celestial, new message to mankind for this particular
- Impending disaster (pollution, atomic explosion) calls for drastic
measures. Salvation reserved, only for faithful members.
- Fresh interpretation of holy book thanks to insight / revelation
- Esoteric tradition, once accessible to adepts only, now revealed.
- New channel for teachings of esoteric lodge / brotherhood.
- New doctrine / insight based on latest scientific discoveries,
- Only those following this particular work on self, discipline,
or belief, will reach eternity, be released from earth's satanic
attraction, cycle of rebirths, etc.
- Preparatory group to make way for the coming of the new messiah
/ world-teacher / avatar.
Noteworthy is the vehemence with which groups stress differences
between each other. The more closely movements share an outlook,
the more virulent the attacks on their rivals become, much more so
than on other groups which follow completely different beliefs.
This manifests itself especially when groups split.
In [medieval] Christianity, one could not stoop too low in attacking
other followers of Christ who held a slightly different opinion of
things. It resulted in disastrous wars. [The Twenty Years War, and The
Forty Years War.]
ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPIRITUAL MOVEMENTS, Michael Rogge
Induction of guilt, and the use of guilt to
manipulate cult members.
Cult members can be faulted, and made to feel guilty, for anything
and everything, from their sexual
desires to their weakness in getting tired and making mistakes
after 16 hours of working for the cult for free.
Many cults use public confession or self-criticism sessions to induce
Errors and sins committed in the past are also a
fertile ground for inducing guilt, especially
since the cult member can not now do anything to change or fix
the past. This guilt can, in turn, be
used to control the minds of cult members: "You thought that
was a good thing to do? Your mind
is useless. Your mind is corrupted. Just do what you are told,
and quit trying to think so much."
The cult also induces guilt by holding up an
ahuman, impossibly lofty standard for the perfect member.
The members can't ever live up to the standard, so they always
feel guilty and inadequate.
See the item An Impossible
Superhuman Model of Perfection for more.
Guilt induction is a very powerful tool for manipulating people's
In his study of Communist "brainwashing" of American and
British prisoners during the Korean War, Edward Hunter wrote:
The Reds had found that the easiest way to subdue any group of
people was to give its members a guilt complex and then to lead
them on from self-denunciation to self-betrayal.
All that was required to put this across was a
sufficiently heartless exploitation of the essential goodness
in people, so that they would seek self-sacrifice to
compensate for their feelings of guilt. The self-sacrifice
obviously made available to them in this inside-out environment
is some form of treason.
Brainwashing, From Pavlov to Powers,
Edward Hunter, page 169.
For example, the brainwashers would criticize a white prisoner for having
lived a live of luxury, never caring about the fate of the poor Negroes, being
just an uncaring heartless monster who went along with the Capitalist agenda because
he personally benefited from it, even if it was killing others. Then the confused
white fellow had to confess all of that in public self-criticism sessions.
Then, to make amends, he had to do something like snitch on a fellow prisoner,
or memorize and espouse Communist dogma. And then it went on and on like that
until a few prisoners had switched sides.
Prof. Margaret Thaler Singer also wrote that one of the essential ingredients of
any effective brainwashing or
mind control program is
"Create a sense of powerlessness, covert fear, guilt, and dependency."
Thus, any cult that combines guilt induction with
confession and self-criticism sessions
has a good start on a mind-control or brainwashing program.
The cult will simply offer the member some other form of self-sacrifice,
usually a life spent fund-raising or recruiting or working for free.
Unquestionable Dogma, Sacred Science, and Infallible Ideology.
The cult has lots of it to teach you.
Dogma can also be defined as doctrine, beliefs, convictions,
teachings, precepts, or tenets.
And they are all true, always.
No critical questions about the leader, doctrine, or policy are
seen as legitimate, "because God gave our leader these teachings,
so of course they are absolutely right and infallible.
Anybody who criticizes our leader's teachings must be an agent
"Unquestionable dogma" is also called "Sacred
Science", which is one of Dr. Robert J. Lifton's
of Thought Reform.
The cult's "truth" is the absolute truth, sacred and beyond
The cult's laws, rules and regulations are absolutely correct,
always, and therefore to be followed automatically.
There is a reverence demanded for the leadership.
They have ALL of the answers, they say, and only to them is
given the revelation of "truth".
The ultimate moral vision becomes the ultimate science and the
person who dares to criticize it is considered immoral, irreverent,
and "unscientific". A
Moral Re-Armament slogan was,
"MRA, scientific medicine for the moral ills of the world."
(There was, of course, nothing "scientific" about
Moral Re-Armament. Science requires
that you carefully test your medicine to see if it really works.)
Another aspect of cult dogma is how cults will make sweeping arbitrary
groundless statements that are based on no commonly-accepted facts at all.
For instance, the 3HO cult says that the reason that
men have beards and women do not is because men have an energy center in
the middle of their chin that must be protected from the feminine lunar
energy or else the men will become hysterical and act like women.
Say what? Where did that come from?
Similarly, the "Hari Krishna" cult (ISKCON) declared that Swami Prabhupada was the Earth's
guru for the next 10,000 years. Who says that the earth even has just one guru, never mind
the idea that one guy gets to monopolize the position for 10,000 years, even after he dies?
Where do they get such stuff? Well, they just make it up.
Relatively new members rise in status and confirm their membership
in the group by showing their skill in attacking dissidents and critics
with the standard dogma and arguments — that is, by showing their
skill in parroting the party line.
Often, the cult will claim that it possesses some great new
discovery, invention, or revelation from God.
"Never before in history has mankind had this great new blessing
which our guru has brought to us..."
- The cult leader claims,
"God has revealed to no man before what He has revealed to me."
- The cult declares,
"God has given us the 'new dispensation'."
"God has given us a new revelation."
- The cult declares,
"God has chosen to speak to us in this age like He spoke to other nations in the past."
- The cult leader claims,
"No one understood the true meaning of the Scriptures before I saw the light."
- Or, the cult leader claims,
"God has appointed us to continue the Sacred Great Work, a Golden Unbroken Thread
which has been protected and preserved in secret by hidden devotees for 2000 years."
- In Scientology, the leader L. Ron Hubbard bragged that he had made
breakthroughs in human psychology that no person had ever accomplished before,
and that he had then developed a new technology of the mind unknown to humankind
before. (And you couldn't prove him wrong about anything because you weren't
an advanced Scientologist — you are so primitive and brain-damaged,
they say, that you cannot even see the truth that Hubbard saw.)
In an article that criticized the public school system, Jill Haunold clearly described
the problem of stubbornly-held dogmatic beliefs and fervently-believed ideology:
"I don't agree with you people," a teacher told me.
"I don't believe that teachers intentionally harm children." Not that I had ever said
teachers intentionally hurt children but this was apparently her interpretation of my story
about the effect school disciplinary systems have on the behavior of children and adults.
She conceded that school conditions were less than ideal for teachers or students.
But, she concluded by saying given large class sizes, the little value our society places
on children, teachers, and learning as well as other societal problems, which were
unlikely to change, there was simply nothing teachers could do. Not wishing to
antagonize her further, I simply said that I did not think teachers intentionally hurt
But I have to question why a teacher would defend her position by telling me teachers don't
intentionally do harm. Does this mean she knows teachers hurt children but it is unintentional?
Does unintentionality excuse behavior that harms children?
And does the unintentionality of the harm allow her to further believe there is nothing she
can do about it since she is unaware of what she is doing?
Lacan suggests once "illusion," or a myth that is universally accepted amongst the population
of a particular culture, has taken hold, in this case that schools are fine but for a little
tweaking, there is little hope for change because facts will simply serve to support the
ideology behind the fantasy.
That the teacher said she did not think teachers intentionally hurt children instead of
simply saying that teachers did not hurt children, would not surprise Lacan.
How can it be explained that teachers would continue to do something that causes harm?
The popular belief is that if it is just pointed out what they are doing they would change.
But using Lacan's logic, it is not likely that teachers do not know what they are doing,
nor that they will change. Instead, they are making the choice not to do anything
differently because they believe so strongly in the ideology defining what they do.
The ideology is the illusion that transforms any knowledge into that which supports
the myth itself (Zizek, S. 1999).
Here we are speaking of the belief that outside of a few bad teachers, and a few problems
that could be improved through better public support, school is essentially a good thing.
Thus, what is done in the name of school is justifiable. The end justifies the means.
Ideology filters any information that would contradict the "goodness" of school.
Critical consciousness is required to remove the filters.
Zizek, S. (1999). "The sublime object of ideology." In J. Rivkin and M. Ryan (Eds.)
Literary theory: An anthology. (pp. 312-327). Oxford: Blackwell.
It's about Time: Schooling as Oppression, Jill Haunold, Anarchy; A Journal of Desire Armed,
No. 57, Spring-Summer 2004, Vol. 22. No. 1, page 45.
in the group's beliefs and teachings is one
of the big red flags to watch for.
Another giant warning sign is the refusal to fix things that are wrong,
and refusal to even admit that something is wrong.
The cult will usually claim that all of its beliefs, teachings,
and tenets are sacred and cannot be changed. If you find something
that is wrong — even an obvious error —
they will either deny it, and claim that it is right and
you are wrong ("You don't understand"),
because of some explanation that often involves
redefining a bunch of words, or they will rationalize the error and
say that it's all okay anyway and shouldn't be changed, for some reason
or other. They simply will not modify their beliefs to agree with the facts.
It's like the old saying, "I won't allow my opinions to be swayed by mere facts."
Some of the most outrageous cult tenets are statements that are unverifiable,
unprovable, or unevaluable (at least, in this world). For example:
- I have tested you before. We were both monks in ancient Egypt,
and I was your teacher then. (Paul Brunton, see
- I am from Venus.
- God spoke to me.
- My real home is Sirius, and when I die, I will return there.
- I was voluntarily, consciously, reborn on this planet to help get
mankind through this crisis.
- God is pleased when you follow these principles.
(Dr. Frank N. D. Buchman and William G. Wilson)
- The reason you feel all of that tension and stiffness in your neck is
because the way you died in your last incarnation was you were beheaded.
- The reason you feel such hostility towards her is, she killed you
in your last incarnation.
- Having sex with a negative person will damage your spiritual body.
- Master is the Messiah. (Moonies, Rajneeshees, Premies, and many others)
- Or, Our Master is the new prophet.
- Or, Our Master is the new teacher with the new revelation, or the New Way. (Oxford Group)
- The Devil is trying to get into your mind and influence your thinking,
and lead you astray. (Moonies)
- The only reason we are born in this world is to attain Self Realization. (ISKCON, the Hari Krishnas)
- Buying these expensive trinkets for your dead ancestors will make them happy. (Moonies)
- When we get one-third of the world chanting, we will achieve World Peace. (Nichiren Shoshu, aka Soka Gakkai)
- There is a flying saucer hiding behind the Hale-Bopp comet, just
to take us to Heaven. All we have to do is discard our physical bodies
and go hitch a ride on it, to get to Heaven. (Heaven's Gate)
- Ten generations of your ancestors are stuck at a lower level in the
spirit world, and they are depending on you for their salvation.
If you don't follow Rev. Moon, all of those ancestors will accuse
you throughout eternity of failing your responsibility.
(Moonies, see Hassan,
- Our leader has reincarnated time after time, throughout history,
bringing mankind yet another great invention or discovery each time.
He has been many of the greatest and most famous men in history.
Without our leader, mankind would never have progressed beyond the
dark ages. (Scientology, see
Obviously, none of those statements can be tested to see if they are
really true or not (not without dying, that is).
Some cults spin huge webs of such vague fluff, until it seems like
everything anyone in the group is saying is just more of the
same indefinite and unprovable nonsense. In turn, that vague,
insubstantial feeling about so many things helps to make the
cult members more detached from reality.
Eric Hoffer, in his classic book The True Believer, described cult
dogma this way:
The effectiveness of a doctrine does not come from its meaning but from
its certitude. No doctrine however profound and sublime will be effective unless
it is presented as the embodiment of the one and only truth.
It must be the one word from which all things are and all things speak.
Crude absurdities, trivial nonsense and sublime truths are equally potent
in readying people for self-sacrifice if they are accepted as the sole,
It is obvious, therefore, that in order to be effective a doctrine must
not be understood, but has to be believed in. We can be absolutely certain
only about things we do not understand. A doctrine that is understood is shorn
of its strength. Once we understand a thing, it is as if it had originated
in us. And, clearly, those who are asked to renounce the self and sacrifice
it cannot see eternal certitude in anything that originates in that self.
The fact that they understand a thing fully impairs its validity and certitude
in their eyes.
The devout are always urged to seek the absolute truth with their hearts
and not their minds. "It is the heart which is conscious of God, not the
reason." [—Pascal] Rudolph Hess, when swearing in the entire Nazi party in 1934,
exhorted his hearers: "Do not seek Adolph Hitler with your brains;
all of you will find him with the strength of your hearts."
The True Believer, Eric Hoffer, pages 79 to 80.
If a doctrine is not unintelligible, it has to be vague; and if
neither unintelligible nor vague, it has to be unverifiable. One
has to get to heaven or the distant future to determine the truth of
an effective doctrine.
When some part of a doctrine is relatively simple,
there is a tendency among the faithful to complicate it and obscure it.
Simple words are made pregnant with meaning and made to look like symbols
in a secret message. There is thus an illiterate air about the most literate
true believer. He seems to use words as if he were ignorant of their true
meaning. Hence, too, his taste for quibbling, hairsplitting, and scholastic
"One has to get to Heaven or the distant future to
determine the truth of an effective doctrine."
That makes it extremely difficult to prove that the phony guru is wrong.
Indoctrination of members.
Members have to learn and believe all of that
dogma. The indoctrination can be anything from merely making
people listen to sermons to prolonged intense study to
industrial-strength brainwashing. Christian cults are notorious for
having "Bible Study" meetings every night. Other cults
listen to lectures by the leader, or meet to study his writings,
or listen to his tapes, or watch videotapes...
Appeals to "holy" or "wise" authorities.
The authorities can be anything from
the Bible or other religions' holy scriptures, to the words of
someone deemed to be a knowledgeable
authority on some subject, to the words of dead saints, real or
imagined. And all of them are
supposedly endorsing the cult.
Those endorsements can take on a
wacky circular logic: the cult says
that a certain man is wonderful and wise because that man says
that the cult is wonderful and wise.
Adelaide Bry wrote a book
that glorified Werner Erhard
and his "est" "self-improvement training"
hoax which prominently featured
not letting people go to the bathroom, and insisting that people
"get it", without ever defining what "get it"
She described Erhard as a
"genius", "a magnetic and attractive man with the body
of a tennis player and the eyes of a prophet"
He is obviously brilliant and for some it may be more comfortable
to label him a charlatan than to look at what he has to say and what
he's doing. Anyone who has experienced the training and who also
has knowledge about the mind of man, and the traditions of philosophy,
theology, and psychology, cannot fail to see how Werner has pulled
them all together in a meaningful way that people who aren't
philosophers, theologians, or psychologists can grasp.
It is easy, also, to write off what Werner is doing by seeing
it merely as the sum of its parts: some basic Zen, a little
Gestalt, a dash of Psychosynthesis, and some shrewd business management.
That's like saying Picasso's work is merely the integration of all the
brush techniques and stylistic devices ever created by all the great
artists who came before him.
This point of view fails to recognize the mark of genius. Werner's
genius becomes evident when you see that what a lot of great thinkers
have been saying for centuries is what est is essentially
saying, too. The difference is that est doesn't say it.
Werner has developed a way for people to experience truth through
their own experience.
With other teachers, you read what they have to say. With Werner
you get it.
est, 60 hours that transform your life,
erhard seminars training, Adelaide Bry, Avon Books, page 165.
Then Werner Erhard reviewed the book, and the publisher printed his
comments on the front cover:
Adelaide Bry did a great job. The book is readable, accurate,
and gives a balanced view of est. Adelaide has demonstrated
her integrity as a writer by extensive research, verifying the
quotes she uses, checking and rechecking her facts; and stating
her opinion as opinion rather than as fact. I support the author.
Werner Erhard, founder of est
est, 60 hours that transform your life,
erhard seminars training, Adelaide Bry, Avon Books,
So Werner Erhard "supports" the fawning, gushing,
starry-eyed authoress who worships him. Gee, what a surprise.
You get a ready-made extended family when you join the cult.
Sometimes, you move into their living quarters upon joining,
and really get an all-encompassing community.
Or you just spend all of your spare time at the temple or center or meeting
hall, only associating with other members, who are your new circle of friends.
A common characteristic of this instant community
"We love you because you are one of us."
The cult members will instantly love you, and consider you a beloved part
of their family, because you chose to join their group.
You are automatically one of the Good People because you joined the cult.
"Since we are all just one big happy family, we should not
keep any secrets from each other."
"Get rid of all of your old mental garbage by talking it
out. You can't take the power out of it if you don't talk it
"Your secrets will keep you sick."
"You must confront all of your engrams. You must tell your stories
of your injuries again and again until they have no power over you."
This "instant intimacy" often takes the form of
confessing all of one's sins
and faults and dirty little secrets to the whole group,
which can then of course be used for
And that instant intimacy always requires that the
cult member immediately reveal any negative thoughts about the cult
or its leader or its practices — he cannot have any privacy, not even
in his own mind.
Such instant and constant intimacy makes critical thought
very difficult: if someone must always
reveal his every thought to the other cult members around him,
then he doesn't even have time to
crystallize negative thoughts about the cult before the other cult
members are "correcting" his thoughts
and changing his mind.
Also, confessing personal secrets to a group of strangers creates an
illusion of closeness and brotherhood, because
kicks in. Ordinarily, we only reveal our innermost secrets to our closest,
most trusted friends. When we are pressured and pushed into revealing our secrets to
a room full of strangers, it creates an inner conflict. The subconscious
mind's answer to the problem is to come to believe that those people
really are our closest, dearest friends, so there isn't any problem.
Scientology does it in a different way: all newcomers allegedly need "auditing" to clear their minds.
In auditing sessions, the neophyte holds in his hands a couple of tin cans or other metal objects that are wired
to a meter that measures galvanic skin response (skin resistance). If the neophyte is under stress,
he sweats a little, which lowers the skin resistance, and it shows on the meter. The neophyte must
reveal all of the times that he was injured, and all painful experiences in his life, and talk them out until the
meter no longer shows an emotional response. Every little intimate detail must be revealed to
the auditor, who then keeps a case file on the subject, which can be used for blackmail later.
If the neophyte tries to quit Scientology, or criticizes Scientology,
he can be threatened with revelation of what is in his case file.
Surrender To The Group.
New members are expected to hand over their minds, their wills,
their lives, and sometimes even their souls, to the group.
(And, often, also their credit cards, checkbooks, and the deed to their house.)
often masked as surrendering to God or Jesus or "the Will of
God", but since God isn't
around to issue new orders, the cult will do it for Him. It's just
like when the TV evangelist tells you to give your money to God, he
instructs you to make the check out to his church, not God.
Part of surrendering to the cult is giving up on having
a personal life or personal goals. Newcomers are instructed to
abandon "selfishness" and to devote their lives to serving
the master, his group, and
their "great cause" (whatever that may be).
"The Death of Self"
is a commonly-stated goal of cults.
In David Berg's Children of God cult, followers were required
to "Forsake All and Follow Jesus".
That really meant
"Give all of your worldly wealth to the cult,
and obey all orders without question", even the orders to
pimp and prostitute one's wife to raise more money for the cult.
Likewise, newcomers should give
up on having their own minds or personalities. Any skepticism or
reluctance to believe in the teachings of the leader is interpreted
as a personal failing, a vice like selfishness or a lingering
love of evil things. Questioning the
guru is "negative." Devotion to the guru must be complete.
The National Socialism of all of us is anchored in uncritical loyalty,
in the surrender to the Führer that does not ask for the why in
individual cases, in the silent execution of his orders. We believe
that the Führer is obeying a higher call to fashion German history.
There can be no criticism of this belief.
== Rudolf Hess, in a speech, June 1934.
Vic Kitchen described his conversion to a true believer in Frank Buchman's
Oxford Group cult:
First, they said, I would have to make clean contact — much as in forming
an electrical connection.
In setting up aerials for the family radio I had scraped the ends of the
copper wire often enough to know that.
To get my contact points clean, they said, I would have to face up to my
sins, and "sin" they defined as anything which came between me
and any other person or stood between me and God.
[Translation: He would have to confess all of his sins
to the Oxford Group.]
Then they said I would have to surrender my will and make it subject
to the will of God. I would have to give up entirely the old life of
self-assertion and self-determination. There was, in other words, no use
in clearing a telephone line to God if I was just going to sit back at
my end of the wire and make up my own mind whether or not I wanted to do
what He told me. They also said that, just as I would not trust a wilful
child with an automobile, God would not trust me with any of his
dynamic spiritual power unless He knew that I was going to use it
as Jesus Christ would use it — for purposes of absolute honesty, absolute
purity, absolute unselfishness and absolute love.
I Was A Pagan,
V. C. "Vic" Kitchen, pages 56-57.
So what's wrong with that? Where is the hole in that logic?
It is this:
"Who decides what God is saying? Who decides what is the Will of God?"
In Frank Buchman's cult, it was Frank Buchman. Everybody had to do what he said,
not what God said, because Buchman declared that no matter how much you polished
your "spiritual wires",
you still couldn't hear
the Voice of God as well as he could.
Vic Kitchen went on to describe how he gradually surrendered his life
to the Oxford Group more and more, and God told him to go to parties:
Before this, in other words, I had been passively obedient to God.
I was now put actively and creatively to work for God. And while, with my
first surrender, my life had been greatly altered, this new surrender completed
the reversal and started me in a direction which lay absolutely opposite to all
of my old ways. I took up a re-directed path, not only in the physical or sensuous
environment, but in all the social-intellectual and spiritual-volitional areas of
In the physical area, as already suggested, I used to be guided only by the pull
of my desire for a sensual indulgence. I would boorishly, for instance, refuse
to give or to go out for an evening party unless I saw there some chance to excite
my senses through conquests at bridge, to dull my senses through the conquest of
more alcohol than others could drink, or to gratify my senses through flirting
with some lady who was not my wife. To-day I give parties or go to them, not because
I hope for sensual excitement, but because God has told me to do so.
And He tells me to give or go to a party because, at that party, He has some
definite and creative work for me to do.
I Was A Pagan,
V. C. "Vic" Kitchen, pages 83-84.
The idea of surrender is confused in a cult. There is a phenomenon
of surrender in real religious or spiritual training, but it gets distorted
in a cult and gets turned into something like servile obedience to a dictatorial
master. Baba Ram Dass wrote this about surrender in a relationship
with a genuine guru or teacher:
In the spiritual literature, the true surrender is spoken of as the
surrender that is no surrender. That is, one opens — through
faith and trust — to a method such as a guru only when such faith
resonates with truth at the depths of one's being. Then there is a
readiness for such opening. If one is still rooted only in intellect
or emotion, any act of surrender is but another act of ego and
can, based on misjudgment, lead to horrendous consequences. So one
cannot choose to surrender to the guru. But when the devotee
and the guru have met at the depths of being then such surrender
is not actually surrender to another person but, rather, surrender
to one's own God-nature.
Miracle of Love: Stories About Neem Karoli Baba,
Ram Dass, pages 300-301.
To repeat, you cannot choose to surrender. If you do
surrender while you are still "wearing your ego",
then it becomes just some more egotism:
"Look at me. I'm one of the special people who
is doing the will of God.
I've surrendered to God, and you haven't,
so I'm more spiritual than you are. So there."
And even worse:
"Look at me. I am totally, unquestioningly, obedient to the Leader,
and you aren't,
so I'm more spiritual than you are. So there."
Giggly wonderfulness and starry-eyed faith.
The cult wallows in an anti-intellectual euphoria.
It just seems like there are always a few cult members around who giggle
a lot, and proclaim that it's all so wonderful. "Praise the Lord!
Sing hallelujah! Glory be! Thank you Jesus! It's a Miracle!"
(or something similar) is their standard response to everything.
It's like a giggly hysteria or mania. Those
people have shut down their logical thinking minds for the duration, in trade
for group acceptance and a world of spiritual make-believe.
You will notice that some members attribute every fortunate
occurence to the deliberate actions of a God or some other powerful spiritual
being who is looking out for and taking care of the cult members —
"The Big Man is really looking out for us" — ostensibly,
because the cult members are doing the right practices, the ones
that please God. Every time something good happens, they proclaim that
it's another miracle, as if God has nothing better to do than wait on them
hand and foot all day long, and arrange events to make them happy, and rig
football games to make their team win.
You will also notice a phenomenon where one member has an intense
emotional or sentimental experience, and gets all choked up,
and calls it a religious experience, and the other cult members are
all happy to jump in and validate the experience, and rave about
how wonderful this organization is, and how wonderful the leader is,
and how wonderful God is,
and how wonderful it is that they are all making such
great progress in following the guru's teachings...
Like sharks in a feeding frenzy, or cows in a stampede, the members happily
egg each other on, and work themselves up into a real tizzy over nothing.
(And they will really resent you if you rain on their parade by
not playing along — by remaining calm and level-headed and
being a little skeptical of the whole routine.)
Dr. Robert Jay Lifton called
that whole process "Mystical Manipulation", and described it as:
- Everyone is manipulating everyone, under the belief that
it advances the "ultimate purpose."
- Experiences are engineered to appear to be spontaneous,
when, in fact, they are contrived to have a deliberate effect.
- People mistakenly attribute their experiences to spiritual
causes when, in fact, they are concocted by human beings.
In the Oxford Group cult, the leader Dr. Frank Buchman encouraged giggly
wonderfulness. He instructed people at meetings to
confess their sins in a jocular manner
that kept the audiences laughing. The slogan was,
"Brevity, Sincerity, Hilarity".
Frank Buchman also told his followers to
make religion look like a lot of fun, a real laugh:
"You've got to get hold of that important pagan bunch.
Play with 'em — show 'em what they're missing. Give 'em the
feeling that religion's more fun than cocktail parties."
== Frank Buchman, quoted by Dr. H. Hensley Henson,
the Bishop of Durham, and reprinted in
The Mystery of Moral Re-Armament, by Tom Driberg,
New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965, pages 197-198.
The Oxford Groupers were all laughing so much,
and showing off how much fun their religion was, that one contemporary critic,
Geoffrey Williamson, commented,
"I dislike their forced heartiness..."
Phil Kerns wrote
a moving book that exposed Amway as a pseudo-religious commercial cult
that falsely promises to make all of its followers wealthy.
Phil and his friend Don, both ex-Amway distributors, went to an Amway distributors'
rally in Portland, Oregon, to observe the event. The emcee introduced the
featured speaker with these words:
"Ladies and Gentlemen, the greatest leader who ever lived. Our BODY could not
exist without a head like this. The most wonderful man in the world..."
It suddenly hit me that this was how they had announded this leading dignitary!
I had heard that sort of glorification at rallies all over the country.
"But isn't Christ the head of the church body?" I thought.
The crowd was now laughing. As I looked up, I could see this leader,
who was exalted much like a god, moving even faster than before.
Body gyrations and descriptive arm and head motions accompanied his
"Do you people out there want to be free?" The crowd now sprang to its
feet and screamed back to him, "Yes! Yes!" Their arms were stretched outward
and upwards, hands open, in a Pentecostal fashion. Many were swaying and waving
their arms back and forth as they responded to the speaker.
"How many of you want to tell the boss to kiss off?" Again the crowd screamed
back, even louder than before. The applause now became rhythmic. They all stood
and clapped in unison. Some stamped their feet while others beat on the tables!
It just kept going on and on. This pseudo Christlike figure lifted his hands
towards the heavens and nodded his head to each beat. It was an orgy of enthusiasm.
Even after the crowd sat back down, their voiced responses continued. Each
statement the speaker made generated more excitement in the crowd. The beating
of the tables became more intense. Those sitting at the table closest to me stood
again. Hundreds of enthusiastic followers all across the room followed suit. Each
was fully engrossed in the leader's words. As I looked out into that sea of faces,
every eye appeared to be fixed upon the speaker with a glassy stare. They seemed
One black fellow directly across from me was beating the table so hard with his fist
that the water goblets were beginning to spill. His face expressed utter jubilation,
and his body was rocking to the throbbing beat.
Hundreds were now screaming at the top of their lungs, encouraging the speaker on.
Dozens of individuals stood on their chairs; some whistled while others took their
napkins and twirled them over their heads like rodeo stars.
I couldn't believe what I was seeing. It just wouldn't stop! For a moment the
noise began to die down, and I thought they were going to quit. Instead the
unified clapping took an intense upswing. They were whistling, stamping and
beating on the tables faster than ever. The noise was deafening. Bodies were
twisting, jumping and dancing to the beat.
The speaker was dripping with sweat. His head was nodding with intense rhythmical
sways. His hands, fists clenched, beat up and down as if striking invisible drums.
He intermittently lifted his arms upward and outward in a victory like stance.
"What do you need if you're going to succeed?" he roared into the microphone.
The crowd responded instantly. They knew the answer, and without missing a beat
they chanted loudly, "Books, tapes, rallies! Books, tapes, rallies! Books, tapes, rallies!
Books, tapes, rallies! Books, tapes, rallies!"
After what seemed like an eternity of chanting, the leader, much like the
conductor of an orchestra, thrust his hands out slashing the air in an
apparent signal for the crowd to stop. Instantly the room became silent.
One could have heard a pin drop.
Then, after a few moments, one could see that people were now
looking at each other. Some were smiling. Others were laughing.
The host for the evening's program was now making announcements
of future events, and the black fellow near me, like many others
throughout the room, went around and began to shake the hands of
everyone within reach.
"Ain't it great? Man, I'm excited!" he would exclaim to each person.
Many, in turn, would acknowledge that they too, were excited.
This fellow then came up to me and put his sweating palm into mine
and with a gleaming smile asked, "Are you excited, Brother? Are
I really didn't know what to say, so I just returned the smile.
He went on and shook another dozen hands, expressing the joy and
delight that he felt that night.
This same type of electricity was being generated all over the room.
Don came and stood next to my side. I wondered what he was thinking.
All of this allegiance shown to the leader reminded me of what Lee Brown,
Diamond Direct, had told a crowd at a different function.
He urged them on with words similar to the following:
"Step out on faith now, not understanding, like I did not understand.
I didn't know what it was all about, but I believed in my friend.
I believed in my sponsor! And I stepped out in faith, not knowing what
to do; but everything he suggested I did. But I also believed my
sponsor and my friend would not do anything to hurt me. Do as your
friend and your sponsor will do. Accept that on faith. And do what
is suggested for you to do. And just follow these principles which
are proven to work, to have whatever you want in life!"
As I reflected on Brown's words, I felt Don nudge me. "C'mon, let's get
out of here, Phil. All of this is making me sick. How could we possibly
have been taken in by all of this at one time? We were so blind."
I stood fast and took one last long look. I felt compassion. My heart
ached for all those I was watching.
"Phil, let's get out of here," Don pleaded. I surrendered to my friend's
request. It seemed to me that reaching those people with the truth would
be an insurmountable task, but I knew we had to try.
Fake It Till You Make It, Phil Kerns,
That performance clearly displays several more standard cult characteristics:
- 1. The Guru is always right and
- 61. The Guru Is Extra-Special.
The leader was actually introduced as
"the greatest leader who ever lived. ...
The most wonderful man in the world..."
Why? Because he made some money selling soap? Because he got even richer
by getting other people to sell more soap for him, and to buy his books,
tapes, and rally tickets?
- 71. We Have The Panacea,
- 7. Irrationality,
- 14. Unquestionable Dogma, Sacred Science, and Infallible Ideology,
- 77. True Believers, and
- 82. Denial of the truth. Reversal of reality.
They claim that they have the Big Answer for prosperity, riches, success in life, and happiness for everybody —
"...just follow these principles which are proven to work, to have
whatever you want in life!"
That is quite untrue; that is just the opposite of the truth.
There are no "principles" in those cult practices, and they have
not been proven to work. Quite the opposite —
they have been disproven.
The mathematics of making everyone
rich by feeding off of others cannot possibly work.
Ponzi schemes and pyramid-shaped "multi-level sales" scams do
not work and cannot work for everybody.
It is a physical and mathematical impossibility. The people at the bottom
of the pyramid always get burned while a few people at the top get rich.
Stubborn refusal to see that the system cannot work for them and make them rich
is irrational behavior, and the mark of a true believer.
- 79. Promised Powers or Knowledge
(And promised riches.)
- 80. It's a con. You don't
get the promised goodies.
- 92. Grandiose existence.
Bombastic, Grandiose Claims.
"Ladies and Gentlemen, the greatest leader who ever lived. Our BODY could not
exist without a head like this. The most wonderful man in the world..."
"have whatever you want in life..."
(Oh really? Well, what I want is a non-poisonous alternative energy source
for America, so that our children will not freeze and starve in the dark
when the oil supply runs out. Can Amway give me that?)
- 6. Group-think, Suppression of Dissent, and Enforced Conformity in Thinking, and
- 27. You Can't Tell The Truth.
That rally was a dramatic example of mob psychology, where the group does the thinking.
Critical thinking is difficult, and effective dissent is impossible, in a situation like that,
which is precisely why they stage so many rallies like that. Emotional
hooplah displaces intelligent thought.
Especially notice the repeated demands to "have faith", to "step out on faith", and
to trust your sponsor and obey your sponsor, because you don't understand.
That shows several more standard cult characteristics:
- 33. Newcomers Can't Think Right.
- 90. Newcomers Need Fixing.
- 39. Mentoring
Sponsors will teach the stupid newcomers how to think right.
- 50. Demands for Total Faith and Total Trust
Trust your sponsor and your uplines. They wouldn't cheat you out of money
to make themselves even richer — no, not ever. It's unthinkable.
- 89. Demands For Compliance With The Group
- 86. The group wants to own you.
- 69. The cult takes
over the individual's decision-making process.
"...And do what is suggested for you to do. And just follow these principles...
Do as your friend and your sponsor will do. Accept that on faith."
- 72. Progressive
Indoctrination and Progressive Commitments
- 25. Deceptive
- 23. Dual Purposes,
Hidden Agendas, and Ulterior Motives.
In the beginning, Amway was presented as merely a wonderful business opportunity, and
the beginner just agreed to sell soap, and to get a bunch of new downlines selling more soap for him,
in order to grow wealthy.
But then the instructions that he received gradually changed into demands
for total faith and total obedience, and adherence to the Amway right-wing
political agenda, and belief in their pseudo-religion, and acceptance of their
arrogant materialistic value system where income equals virtue, and
Net Worth equals human worth.
44. Dispensed existence
The cult sets the standards for good and bad, and decides who and what merits admiration.
In Amway, "good" means that someone makes a lot of money.
"The greatest leader who ever lived" means that he makes even more money,
and has many thousands of downlines (followers, and followers of followers, and followers
of followers of followers, etc...).
It is easy to see why Phil Kerns called Amway a modern-day Baal.
Continue to questions 21 to 30...
1) Cooper, Paulette, The Scandal of Scientology,
- 1. The Guru is always right.
- 2. You are always wrong.
- 3. No Exit.
- 4. No Graduates.
- 5. Cult-speak.
- 6. Group-think, Suppression of Dissent, and Enforced Conformity in Thinking
- 7. Irrationality.
- 8. Suspension of disbelief.
- 9. Denigration of competing sects, cults, religions, groups, or organizations.
- 10. Personal attacks on critics.
- 11. Insistence that the group is THE ONLY WAY.
- 12. The group and its members are special.
- 13. Induction of guilt, and the use of guilt to manipulate group members.
- 14. Unquestionable Dogma, Sacred Science, and Infallible Ideology.
- 15. Indoctrination of members.
- 16. Appeals to "holy" or "wise" authorities.
- 17. Instant Community.
- 18. Instant Intimacy.
- 19. Surrender To The Group.
- 20. Giggly wonderfulness and starry-eyed faith.
- 21. Personal testimonies of earlier converts.
- 22. The group is self-absorbed.
- 23. Dual Purposes, Hidden Agendas, and Ulterior Motives.
- 24. Aggressive Recruiting.
- 25. Deceptive Recruiting.
- 26. No Humor.
- 27. You Can't Tell The Truth.
- 28. Cloning — You become a clone of the group leader or other elder group members.
- 29. You must change your beliefs to conform to the group's beliefs.
- 30. The End Justifies The Means.
- 31. Dishonesty, Deceit, Denial, Falsification, and Rewriting History.
- 32. Different Levels of Truth.
- 33. Newcomers can't think right.
- 34. The Group Implants Phobias.
- 35. The Group is Money-Grubbing.
- 36. Confession Sessions.
- 37. A System of Punishments and Rewards.
- 38. An Impossible Superhuman Model of Perfection.
- 39. Mentoring.
- 40. Intrusiveness.
- 41. Disturbed Guru, Mentally Ill Leader.
- 42. Disturbed Members, Mentally Ill Followers.
- 43. Create a sense of powerlessness, covert fear, guilt, and dependency.
- 44. Dispensed existence
- 45. Ideology Over Experience, Observation, and Logic
- 46. Keep them unaware that there is an agenda to change them
- 47. Thought-Stopping Language. Thought-terminating clichés and slogans.
- 48. Mystical Manipulation
- 49. The guru or the group demands ultra-loyalty and total commitment.
- 50. Demands for Total Faith and Total Trust
- 51. Members Get No Respect. They Get Abused.
- 52. Inconsistency. Contradictory Messages
- 53. Hierarchical, Authoritarian Power Structure, and Social Castes
- 54. Front groups, masquerading recruiters, hidden promoters, and disguised propagandists
- 55. Belief equals truth
- 56. Use of double-binds
- 57. The group leader is not held accountable for his actions.
- 58. Everybody else needs the guru to boss him around, but nobody bosses the guru around.
- 59. The guru criticizes everybody else, but nobody criticizes the guru.
- 60. Dispensed truth and social definition of reality
- 61. The Guru Is Extra-Special.
- 62. Flexible, shifting morality
- 63. Separatism
- 64. Inability to tolerate criticism
- 65. A Charismatic Leader
- 66. Calls to Obliterate Self
- 67. Don't Trust Your Own Mind.
- 68. Don't Feel Your Own Feelings.
- 69. The group takes over the individual's decision-making process.
- 70. You Owe The Group.
- 71. We Have The Panacea.
- 72. Progressive Indoctrination and Progressive Commitments
- 73. Magical, Mystical, Unexplainable Workings
- 74. Trance-Inducing Practices
- 75. New Identity — Redefinition of Self — Revision of Personal History
- 76. Membership Rivalry
- 77. True Believers
- 78. Scapegoating and Excommunication
- 79. Promised Powers or Knowledge
- 80. It's a con. You don't get the promised goodies.
- 81. Hypocrisy
- 82. Lying. Denial of the truth. Reversal of reality. Rationalization and Denial.
- 83. Seeing Through Tinted Lenses
- 84. You can't make it without the group.
- 85. Enemy-making and Devaluing the Outsider
- 86. The group wants to own you.
- 87. Channelling or other occult, unchallengeable, sources of information.
- 88. They Make You Dependent On The Group.
- 89. Demands For Compliance With The Group
- 90. Newcomers Need Fixing.
- 91. Use of the Cognitive Dissonance Technique.
- 92. Grandiose existence. Bombastic, Grandiose Claims.
- 93. Black And White Thinking
- 94. The use of heavy-duty mind control and rapid conversion techniques.
- 95. Threats of bodily harm or death to someone who leaves the group.
- 96. Threats of bodily harm or death to someone who criticizes the group.
- 97. Appropriation of all of the members' worldly wealth.
- 98. Making cult members work long hours for free.
- 99. Total immersion and total isolation.
- 100. Mass suicide.
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Last updated 30 January 2019.
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