The outcome of this study does not surprise me, AA failure is it's dependency on the program where credit is given to the program not to the individual for any improvement in drinking behaviors. The individual sees this as outside himself.
Good therapy moves one to an internal locus of control.
In this study the AA participants showed a greater external locus of control than those in smart recovery.
pilot study: Locus of control and spiritual beliefs in alcoholics anonymous and smart recovery members
Eric C Lia,
Chris Feifera, Corresponding author contact information,
To investigate whether Alcoholics Anonymous' (AA's) “higher power” concept encourages externally dependent behavior, this pilot study tested whether AA and Self Management and Recovery Training (SR) members are equal on measures of external locus of control. The AA sample (N = 48) and SR sample (N = 33) were similar in age, gender, and education levels, and both required a minimum of 8 weeks group involvement. A modified spiritual beliefs questionnaire (SBQ) was first administered to each sample to compare them on spiritual beliefs, and the drinking-related locus of control scale (DRIE) was then conducted to compare each sample on locus of control. Significant differences were found between both samples on five out of seven spiritual measures, with the AA group scoring consistently higher on these factors (p < .01). In addition, the AA sample was significantly more external on the DRIE scale than the SR sample (p = .00003). These findings suggest that AA members are generally more spiritually oriented and exhibit greater external locus of control relative to SR members. Future controlled trials are necessary to confirm whether these results are caused by particular programs or primarily due to a self-selective process.
From the Wiki ;
Locus of control is a theory used in personality psychology that refers to causation as perceived by individuals in response to personal outcomes or other events. The theory was developed by Julian B. Rotter in 1954, and has since become an aspect of personality studies. A person's "locus" (Latin for "place" or "location") is conceptualised as either internal (the person believes they can control their life) or external (meaning they believe that their decisions and life are controlled by environmental factors which they cannot influence).
Individuals with a high internal locus of control believe that events in their life derive primarily from their own actions; for example, if a person with an internal locus of control does not perform as well as they wanted to on a test, they would blame it on lack of preparedness on their part. If said individual
performed well on a test, the outcome would then be attributed to the individual's ability to study. In the test-performance example, if a person with a high external locus of control does poorly on a test, they might attribute the outcome to the difficulty of the test questions. If they performed well on a test, they might think the teacher was lenient or that they were lucky.
Locus of control has generated much research in a variety of areas in psychology. The construct is applicable to fields such as educational psychology, health psychology or clinical psychology. There will probably continue to be debate about whether specific or more global measures of locus of control will prove to be more useful. Careful distinctions should also be made between locus of control (a concept linked with expectancies about the future) and attributional style (a concept linked with explanations for past outcomes), or between locus of control and concepts such as self-efficacy. The importance of locus of control as a topic in psychology is likely to remain quite central for many years.
Locus of control has also been included as one of four dimensions of core self-evaluations – one's fundamental appraisal of oneself – along with neuroticism, self-efficacy, and self-esteem.  In a follow-up study, Judge et al. (2002) argued the concepts of locus of control, neuroticism, self-efficacy and self-esteem measured the same, single factor. The concept of core self-evaluations was first examined by Judge, Locke, and Durham (1997), and since has proven to have the ability to predict several work outcomes, specifically, job satisfaction and job performance.